a. There is legitimate tactical technical debt, for example, to run an experiment. It just turns sour when you’re “forgetting” about it.
b. Make it a part of the working agreement to allocate 25% of the team’s capacity at any given time to refactoring & fixing bugs. And apply this rule religiously.
So, focus early on teaching and understanding the values of agile software development, for example, developing the courage to say ‘no’.